What is medical billing? Medical billing is the staff or department that handles patient billing and insurance issues for a medical practice. The job of a medical biller is similar to that of a lawyer: they represent their client (the doctor or hospital) and negotiate on their behalf to make sure they get paid for the medical services they provide. They communicate with the patient and their insurance company for every medical claim. A medical billing staff can be in-house or an outsourced service, depending on the size and needs of the practice. As the healthcare and insurance industry get increasingly complex, outsourcing has become a popular option. It frees up internal resources so that doctors and their staff can focus on what they do best: helping patients.